Reformed Classics https://reformedforum.org Reformed Theological Resources Tue, 05 Jul 2016 15:25:21 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.4.2 https://reformedforum.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2020/04/cropped-reformed-forum-logo-300dpi-side_by_side-1-32x32.png Reformed Classics – Reformed Forum https://reformedforum.org 32 32 Reformed Classicshttp://reformedforum.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/images/albums/reformedclassics-album144.jpghttp://reformedforum.org/programs/reformedclassics144144Reformed Classics podcast art.Reformed Forumno Reformed Forum mail@reformedforum.org Book 2, Chapter 5, Sections 1–5 — The Arguments Usually Alleged in Support of Free Will Refuted, Part 1 https://reformedforum.org/podcasts/rc44/ https://reformedforum.org/podcasts/rc44/#respond Wed, 13 Jul 2016 04:00:19 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com?p=5027&preview_id=5027 Sections

1. Absurd fictions of opponents first refuted, and then certain passages of Scripture explained. Answer by a negative. Confirmation of the answer.

2. Another absurdity of Aristotle and Pelagius. Answer by a distinction. Answer fortified by passages from Augustine, and supported by the authority of an Apostle.

3. Third absurdity borrowed from the words of Chrysostom. Answer by a negative.

4. Fourth absurdity urged of old by the Pelagians. Answer from the works of Augustine. Illustrated by the testimony of our Saviour. Another answer, which explains the use of exhortations.

5. A third answer, which contains a fuller explanation of the second. Objection to the previous answers. Objection refuted. Summary of the previous answers.

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https://reformedforum.org/podcasts/rc44/feed/ 0 18:32Sections 1 Absurd fictions of opponents first refuted and then certain passages of Scripture explained Answer by a negative Confirmation of the answer 2 Another absurdity of Aristotle and Pelagius ...Anthropology,CalvinReformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 4, Sections 1–8 — How God Works in the Hearts of Men https://reformedforum.org/podcasts/rc43/ https://reformedforum.org/podcasts/rc43/#respond Wed, 06 Jul 2016 04:00:29 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com?p=5026&preview_id=5026 Sections

1. Connection of this chapter with the preceding. Augustine’s similitude of a good and bad rider. Question answered in respect to the devil.

2. Question answered in respect to God and man. Example from the history of Job. The works of God distinguished from the works of Satan and wicked men. 1. By the design or end of acting. How Satan acts in the reprobate. 2. How God acts in them.

3. Old Objection, that the agency of God in such cases is referable to prescience or permission, not actual operation. Answer, showing that God blinds and hardens the reprobate, and this in two ways; 1. By deserting them; 2. By delivering them over to Satan.

4. Striking passages of Scripture, proving that God acts in both ways, and disposing of the objection with regard to prescience. Confirmation from Augustine.

5. A modification of the former answer, proving that God employs Satan to instigate the reprobate, but, at the same time, is free from all taint.

6. How God works in the hearts of men in indifferent matters. Our will in such matters not so free as to be exempt from the overruling providence of God. This confirmed by various examples.

7. Objection, that these examples do not form the rule. An answer, fortified by the testimony of universal experience, by Scripture, and a passage of Augustine.

8. Some, in arguing against the error of free will, draw an argument from the event. How this is to be understood.

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https://reformedforum.org/podcasts/rc43/feed/ 0 21:42Sections 1 Connection of this chapter with the preceding Augustine s similitude of a good and bad rider Question answered in respect to the devil 2 Question answered in respect ...Anthropology,CalvinReformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 3, Sections 10–14 — Everything Proceeding from the Corrupt Nature of Man Damnable https://reformedforum.org/podcasts/rc42/ https://reformedforum.org/podcasts/rc42/#respond Tue, 08 Dec 2015 05:00:18 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com?p=4663&preview_id=4663 Sections

10. A fourth Objection. Answer. Fifth Objection. Answer. Answer confirmed by many passages of Scripture, and supported by a passage from Augustine.

11. Perseverance not of ourselves, but of God. Objection. Two errors in the objection. Refutation of both.

12. An objection founded on the distinction of co-operating grace. Answer. Answer confirmed by the testimony of Augustine and Bernard.

13. Last part of the chapter, in which it is proved by many passages of Augustine, that he held the doctrine here taught.

14. An objection, representing Augustine at variance with himself and other Theologians, removed. A summary of Augustine’s doctrine on free will.

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https://reformedforum.org/podcasts/rc42/feed/ 0 18:00Sections 10 A fourth Objection Answer Fifth Objection Answer Answer confirmed by many passages of Scripture and supported by a passage from Augustine 11 Perseverance not of ourselves but of ...Anthropology,CalvinReformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 3, Sections 5-9 – Everything Proceeding from the Corrupt Nature of Man Damnable https://reformedforum.org/rc41/ https://reformedforum.org/rc41/#comments Tue, 28 Oct 2014 04:00:12 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?post_type=podcast&p=3876 Sections

5. Though man has still the faculty of willing, there is no soundness in it. He falls under the bondage of sin necessarily, and yet voluntarily. Necessity must be distinguished from compulsion. The ancient Theologians acquainted with this necessity. Some passages condemning the vacillation of Lombard.

6. Conversion to God constitutes the remedy or soundness of the human will. This not only begun, but continued and completed; the beginning, continuance, and completion, being ascribed entirely to God. This proved by Ezekiel’s description of the stony heart, and from other passages of Scripture.

7. Various Objections.—1. The will is converted by God, but, when once prepared, does its part in the work of conversion. Answer from Augustine. 2. Grace can do nothing without will, nor the will without grace. Answer. Grace itself produces will. God prevents the unwilling, making him willing, and follows up this preventing grace that he may not will in vain. Another answer gathered from various passages of Augustine.

8. Answer to the second Objection continued. No will inclining to good except in the elect. The cause of election out of man. Hence right will, as well as election, are from the good pleasure of God. The beginning of willing and doing well is of faith; faith again is the gift of God; and hence mere grace is the cause of our beginning to will well. This proved by Scripture.

9. Answer to second Objection continued. That good will is merely of grace proved by the prayers of saints. Three axioms—1. God does not prepare man’s heart, so that he can afterwards do some good of himself, but every desire of rectitude, every inclination to study, and every effort to pursue it, is from Him. 2. This desire, study, and effort, do not stop short, but continue to effect. 3. This progress is constant. The believer perseveres to the end. A third Objection, and three answers to it.

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https://reformedforum.org/rc41/feed/ 1 55:38Sections 5 Though man has still the faculty of willing there is no soundness in it He falls under the bondage of sin necessarily and yet voluntarily Necessity must be ...Anthropology,CalvinReformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 3, Sections 1-4 – Everything Proceeding from the Corrupt Nature of Man Damnable https://reformedforum.org/rc40/ https://reformedforum.org/rc40/#respond Wed, 31 Jul 2013 05:00:13 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?post_type=podcast&p=2880 Sections

1. The intellect and will of the whole man corrupt. The term flesh applies not only to the sensual, but also to the higher part of the soul. This demonstrated from Scripture.

2. The heart also involved in corruption, and hence in no part of man can integrity, or knowledge or the fear of God, be found.

3. Objection, that some of the heathen were possessed of admirable endowments, and, therefore, that the nature of man is not entirely corrupt. Answer, Corruption is not entirely removed, but only inwardly restrained. Explanation of this answer.

4. Objection still urged, that the virtuous and vicious among the heathen must be put upon the same level, or the virtuous prove that human nature, properly cultivated, is not devoid of virtue. Answer, That these are not ordinary properties of human nature, but special gifts of God. These gifts defiled by ambition, and hence the actions proceeding from them, however esteemed by man, have no merit with God.

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https://reformedforum.org/rc40/feed/ 0 16:29Sections 1 The intellect and will of the whole man corrupt The term flesh applies not only to the sensual but also to the higher part of the soul This ...Anthropology,CalvinReformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 2, Sections 21-27 — Man Now Deprived of Freedom of Will https://reformedforum.org/rc39/ https://reformedforum.org/rc39/#respond Wed, 24 Jul 2013 17:48:19 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?post_type=podcast&p=2869 Sections

21. Fourth argument. Scripture ascribes the glory of our adoption and salvation to God only. The human intellect blind as to heavenly things until it is illuminated. Disposal of a heretical objection.
22. Human intellect ignorant of the true knowledge of the divine law. This proved by the testimony of an Apostle, by an inference from the same testimony, and from a consideration of the end and definition of the Law of Nature. Plato obviously mistaken in attributing all sins to ignorance.
23. Themistius nearer the truth in maintaining, that the delusion of the intellect is manifested not so much in generals as in particulars. Exception to this rule.
24. Themistius, however, mistaken in thinking that the intellect is so very seldom deceived as to generals. Blindness of the human intellect when tested by the standard of the Divine Law, in regard both to the first and second tables. Examples.
25. A middle view to be taken—viz. that all sins are not imputable to ignorance, and, at the same time, that all sins do not imply intentional malice. All the human mind conceives and plans in this matter is evil in the sight of God. Need of divine direction every moment.
26. The will examined. The natural desire of good, which is universally felt, no proof of the freedom of the human will. Two fallacies as to the use of terms, appetite and good.
27. The doctrine of the Schoolmen on this subject opposed to and refuted by Scripture. The whole man being subject to the power of sin, it follows that the will, which is the chief seat of sin, requires to be most strictly curbed. Nothing ours but sin.

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https://reformedforum.org/rc39/feed/ 0 24:44Sections 21 Fourth argument Scripture ascribes the glory of our adoption and salvation to God only The human intellect blind as to heavenly things until it is illuminated Disposal of ...Anthropology,CalvinReformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 2, Sections 14-20 – Man Now Deprived of Freedom of Will https://reformedforum.org/rc38/ https://reformedforum.org/rc38/#respond Thu, 09 May 2013 05:00:18 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?post_type=podcast&p=2770 Sections 14-20

14. The power of the intellect, secondly, with regard to the arts. Particular gifts in this respect conferred on individuals, and attesting the grace of God.

15. The rise of this knowledge of things terrestrial, first, that we may see how human nature, notwithstanding of its fall, is still adorned by God with excellent endowments.

16. Use of this knowledge continued. Secondly, that we may see that these endowments bestowed on individuals are intended for the common benefit of mankind. They are sometimes conferred even on the wicked.

17. Some portion of human nature still left. This, whatever be the amount of it, should be ascribed entirely to the divine indulgence. Reason of this. Examples.

18. Second part of the discussion, namely, that which relates to the power of the human intellect in regard to things celestial. These reducible to three heads, namely, divine knowledge, adoption, and will. The blindness of man in regard to these proved and thus tested by a simile.

19. Proved, moreover, by passages of Scripture, showing, 1. That the sons of Adam are endued with some light, but not enough to enable them to comprehend God. Reasons.

20. Adoption not from nature, but from our heavenly Father, being sealed in the elect by the Spirit of regeneration. Obvious from many passages of Scripture, that, previous to regeneration, the human intellect is altogether unable to comprehend the things relating to regeneration. This fully proved. First argument. Second argument. Third argument.

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https://reformedforum.org/rc38/feed/ 0 19:49Sections 14 20 14 The power of the intellect secondly with regard to the arts Particular gifts in this respect conferred on individuals and attesting the grace of God 15 ...Anthropology,CalvinReformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 2, Sections 9-13 – Man Now Deprived of Freedom of Will https://reformedforum.org/icr2-02_09-13/ https://reformedforum.org/icr2-02_09-13/#comments Wed, 06 Mar 2013 05:00:34 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?post_type=podcast&p=2638 Sections

9. The language of the ancient writers on the subject of Free Will is, with the exception of that of Augustine, almost unintelligible. Still they set little or no value on human virtue, and ascribe the praise of all goodness to the Holy Spirit.

10. The last part of the chapter, containing a simple statement of the true doctrine. The fundamental principle is, that man first begins to profit in the knowledge of himself when he becomes sensible of his ruined condition. This confirmed, 1. by passages of Scripture.

11. Confirmed, 2. by the testimony of ancient theologians.

12. The foundation being laid, to show how far the power both of the intellect and will now extends, it is maintained in general, and in conformity with the views of Augustine and the Schoolmen, that the natural endowments of man are corrupted, and the supernatural almost entirely lost. A separate consideration of the powers of the Intellect and the Will. Some general considerations, 1. The intellect possesses some powers of perception. Still it labours under a twofold defect.

13. Man’s intelligence extends both to things terrestrial and celestial. The power of the intellect in regard to the knowledge of things terrestrial. First, with regard to matters of civil polity.

14. The power of the intellect, secondly, with regard to the arts. Particular gifts in this respect conferred on individuals, and attesting the grace of God.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr2-02_09-13/feed/ 3 18:54Sections 9 The language of the ancient writers on the subject of Free Will is with the exception of that of Augustine almost unintelligible Still they set little or no ...CalvinReformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 2, Sections 5-8 – Man Now Deprived of Freedom of Will https://reformedforum.org/icr2_02_05-08/ https://reformedforum.org/icr2_02_05-08/#comments Thu, 07 Jul 2011 13:46:26 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1695 Sections

5. Certain things annexed to Free Will by the ancient theologians, especially the Schoolmen. Many kinds of Free Will according to them.
6. Puzzles of scholastic divines in the explanation of this question.
7. The conclusion that so trivial a matter ought not to be so much magnified. Objection of those who have a fondness for new terms in the Church. Objection answered.
8. Another answer. The Fathers, and especially Augustine, while retaining the term Free Will, yet condemned the doctrine of the heretics on the subject, as destroying the grace of God.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr2_02_05-08/feed/ 1 11:23Sections 5 Certain things annexed to Free Will by the ancient theologians especially the Schoolmen Many kinds of Free Will according to them 6 Puzzles of scholastic divines in the ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 2, Sections 1-4 – Man Now Deprived of Human Will… https://reformedforum.org/icr2-02_01-04/ https://reformedforum.org/icr2-02_01-04/#comments Wed, 18 May 2011 18:09:52 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1625 1. Connection of the previous with the four following chapters. In order to lay a proper foundation for the discussion of free will, two obstacles in the way to be removed—viz. sloth and pride. The basis and sum of the whole discussion. The solid structure of this basis, and a clear demonstration of it by the argument a majori ad minus. Also from the inconveniences and absurdities arising from the obstacle of pride.

2. The second part of the chapter containing the opinions of others. 1. The opinions of philosophers.

3. The labyrinths of philosophers. A summary of the opinion common to all the philosophers.

4. The opinions of others continued—viz. The opinions of the ancient theologians on the subject of free will. These composed partly of Philosophy and partly of Theology. Hence their falsehood, extravagance, perplexity, variety, and contradiction. Too great fondness for philosophy in the Church has obscured the knowledge of God and of ourselves. The better to explain the opinions of philosophers, a definition of Free Will given. Wide difference between this definition and these opinions.

 

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https://reformedforum.org/icr2-02_01-04/feed/ 2 16:551 Connection of the previous with the four following chapters In order to lay a proper foundation for the discussion of free will two obstacles in the way to be ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 1, Sections 8-11 – Through the Fall and Revolt of Adam https://reformedforum.org/icr2-1_08-11/ https://reformedforum.org/icr2-1_08-11/#comments Tue, 29 Jun 2010 17:42:33 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1258 Sections

8. Definition of original sin. Two parts in the definition. Exposition of the latter part. Original sin exposes us to the wrath of God. It also produces in us the works of the flesh. Other definitions considered.
9. Exposition of the former part of the definition—viz. that hereditary depravity extends to all the faculties of the soul.
10. From the exposition of both parts of the definition it follows that God is not the author of sin, the whole human race being corrupted by an inherent viciousness.
11. This, however, is not from nature, but is an adventitious quality. Accordingly, the dream of the Manichees as to two principles vanishes.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr2-1_08-11/feed/ 1 11:19Sections 8 Definition of original sin Two parts in the definition Exposition of the latter part Original sin exposes us to the wrath of God It also produces in us ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 1, Sections 4-7 – Through the Fall and Revolt of Adam https://reformedforum.org/icr2-1_04-07/ https://reformedforum.org/icr2-1_04-07/#respond Tue, 22 Jun 2010 05:00:21 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1228 Sections

4. In considering this latter part, two points to be considered; 1. How it happened that Adam involved himself and the whole human race in this dreadful calamity. This the result not of sensual intemperance, but of infidelity (the source of other heinous sins), which led to revolt from God, from whom all true happiness must be derived. An enumeration of the other sins produced by the infidelity of the first man.

5. The second point to be considered is, the extent to which the contagious influence of the fall extends. It extends, 1. To all the creatures, though unoffending; and, 2. To the whole posterity of Adam. Hence hereditary corruption, or original sin, and the depravation of a nature which was previously pure and good. This depravation communicated to the whole posterity of Adam, but not in the way supposed by the Pelagians and Celestians.

6. Depravation communicated not merely by imitation, but by propagation. This proved, 1. From the contrast drawn between Adam and Christ. Confirmation from passages of Scripture; 2 From the general declaration that we are the children of wrath.

7. Objection, that if Adam’s sin is propagated to his posterity, the soul must be derived by transmission. Answer. Another objection—viz. that children cannot derive corruption from pious parents. Answer.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr2-1_04-07/feed/ 0 16:10Sections 4 In considering this latter part two points to be considered 1 How it happened that Adam involved himself and the whole human race in this dreadful calamity This ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 2, Chapter 1, Sections 1-3 – Through the Fall and Revolt of Adam https://reformedforum.org/icr2-1_01-03/ https://reformedforum.org/icr2-1_01-03/#respond Tue, 15 Jun 2010 05:00:50 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1215 Sections
  1. The knowledge of ourselves most necessary. To use it properly we must be divested of pride, and clothed with true humility, which will dispose us to consider our fall, and embrace the mercy of God in Christ.
  2. Though there is plausibility in the sentiment which stimulates us to self-admiration, the only sound sentiment is that which inclines us to true humbleness of mind. Pretexts for pride. The miserable vanity of sinful man.
  3. Different views taken by carnal wisdom and by conscience, which appeals to divine justice as its standard. The knowledge of ourselves, consisting of two parts, the former of which having already been discussed, the latter is here considered.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr2-1_01-03/feed/ 0 12:07Sections The knowledge of ourselves most necessary To use it properly we must be divested of pride and clothed with true humility which will dispose us to consider our fall ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 18 – The Instrumentality of the World… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-18/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-18/#respond Tue, 08 Jun 2010 05:00:25 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1200 Sections
  1. The carnal mind the source of the objections which are raised against the Providence of God. A primary objection, making a distinction between the permission and the will of God, refuted. Angels and men, good and bad, do nought but what has been decreed by God. This proved by examples.
  2. All hidden movements directed to their end by the unseen but righteous instigation of God. Examples, with answers to objections.
  3. These objections originate in a spirit of pride and blasphemy. Objection, that there must be two contrary wills in God, refuted. Why the one simple will of God seems to us as if it were manifold.
  4. Objection, that God is the author of sin, refuted by examples. Augustine’s answer and admonition.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-18/feed/ 0 25:58Sections The carnal mind the source of the objections which are raised against the Providence of God A primary objection making a distinction between the permission and the will of ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 17, Sections 11-14 – Use to be Made of the Doctrine of Providence https://reformedforum.org/icr1-17_11-14/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-17_11-14/#respond Tue, 01 Jun 2010 15:07:18 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1186 Sections

11. The use of the foregoing meditation.
12. The second part of the chapter, disposing of two objections. 1. That Scripture represents God as changing his purpose, or repenting, and that, therefore, his Providence is not fixed. Answer to this first objection. Proof from Scripture that God cannot repent.
13. Why repentance attributed to God.
14. Second objection, that Scripture speaks of an annulment of the divine decrees. Objection answered. Answer confirmed by an example.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-17_11-14/feed/ 0 13:54Sections 11 The use of the foregoing meditation 12 The second part of the chapter disposing of two objections 1 That Scripture represents God as changing his purpose or repenting ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 17, Sections 6-10 – Use to be Made of the Doctrine of Providence https://reformedforum.org/icr1-17_06-10/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-17_06-10/#respond Tue, 18 May 2010 05:00:23 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1149 Sections

6. A holy meditation on Divine Providence. 1. All events happen by the ordination of God. 2. All things contribute to the advantage of the godly. 3. The hearts of men and all their endeavours are in the hand of God. 4. Providence watches for the safety of the righteous. 5. God has a special care of his elect.
7. Meditation on Providence continued. 6. God in various ways curbs and defeats the enemies of the Church. 7. He overrules all creatures, even Satan himself, for the good of his people.
8. Meditation on Providence continued. 8. He trains the godly to patience and moderation. Examples. Joseph, Job, and David. 9. He shakes off their lethargy, and urges them to repentance.
9. Meditation continued. 10. The right use of inferior causes explained. 11. When the godly become negligent or imprudent in the discharge of duty, Providence reminds them of their fault. 12. It condemns the iniquities of the wicked. 13. It produces a right consideration of the future, rendering the servants of God prudent, diligent, and active. 14. It causes them to resign themselves to the wisdom and omnipotence of God, and, at the same time, makes them diligent in their calling.
10. Meditation continued. 15. Though human life is beset with innumerable evils, the righteous, trusting to Divine Providence, feel perfectly secure.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-17_06-10/feed/ 0 17:56Sections 6 A holy meditation on Divine Providence 1 All events happen by the ordination of God 2 All things contribute to the advantage of the godly 3 The hearts ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 17, Sections 1-5 – Use to be Made of the Doctrine of Providence https://reformedforum.org/icr1-17_01-05/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-17_01-05/#comments Tue, 04 May 2010 12:37:32 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1126 Sections

1. Summary of the doctrine of Divine Providence. 1. It embraces the future and the past. 2. It works by means, without means, and against means. 3. Mankind, and particularly the Church, the object of special care. 4. The mode of administration usually secret, but always just. This last point more fully considered.
2. The profane denial that the world is governed by the secret counsel of God, refuted by passages of Scripture. Salutary counsel.
3. This doctrine, as to the secret counsel of God in the government of the world, gives no countenance either to the impiety of those who throw the blame of their wickedness upon God, the petulance of those who reject means, or the error of those who neglect the duties of religion.
4. As regards future events, the doctrine of Divine Providence not inconsistent with deliberation on the part of man.
5. In regard to past events, it is absurd to argue that crimes ought not to be punished, because they are in accordance with the divine decrees. 1. The wicked resist the declared will of God. 2. They are condemned by conscience. 3. The essence and guilt of the crime is in themselves, though God uses them as instruments.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-17_01-05/feed/ 1 21:39Sections 1 Summary of the doctrine of Divine Providence 1 It embraces the future and the past 2 It works by means without means and against means 3 Mankind and ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 16, Sections 5-9 – The World Created by God https://reformedforum.org/icr1-16_05-09/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-16_05-09/#comments Tue, 27 Apr 2010 05:00:00 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1116 Sections

5. Special Providence of God asserted and proved by arguments founded on a consideration of the Divine Justice and Mercy. Proved also by passages of Scripture, relating to the sky, the earth, and animals.
6. Special Providence proved by passages relating to the human race, and the more especially that for its sake the world was created.
7. Special Providence proved, lastly, from examples taken from the history of the Israelites, of Jonah, Jacob, and from daily experience.
8. Erroneous views as to Providence refuted:—I. The sect of the Stoics. II. The fortune and chance of the Heathen.
9. How things are said to be fortuitous to us, though done by the determinate counsel of God. Example. Error of separating contingency and event from the secret, but just, and most wise counsel of God. Two examples.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-16_05-09/feed/ 1 20:06Sections 5 Special Providence of God asserted and proved by arguments founded on a consideration of the Divine Justice and Mercy Proved also by passages of Scripture relating to the ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 16, Sections 1-4 – The World Created by God… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-16_01-04/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-16_01-04/#respond Tue, 20 Apr 2010 12:20:11 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1105 Sections

1. Even the wicked, under the guidance of carnal sense, acknowledge that God is the Creator. The godly acknowledge not this only, but that he is a most wise and powerful governor and preserver of all created objects. In so doing, they lean on the Word of God, some passages from which are produced.

2. Refutation of the Epicureans, who oppose fortune and fortuitous causes to Divine Providence, as taught in Scripture. The sun, a bright manifestation of Divine Providence.

3. Figment of the Sophists as to an indolent Providence refuted. Consideration of the Omnipotence as combined with the Providence of God. Double benefit resulting from a proper acknowledgement of the Divine Omnipotence. Cavils of Infidelity.

4. A definition of Providence refuting the erroneous dogmas of Philosophers. Dreams of the Epicureans and Peripatetics.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-16_01-04/feed/ 0 19:22Sections 1 Even the wicked under the guidance of carnal sense acknowledge that God is the Creator The godly acknowledge not this only but that he is a most wise ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 15, Sections 5-8 – State in which Man was Created https://reformedforum.org/icr1-15_05-08/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-15_05-08/#respond Tue, 13 Apr 2010 05:00:00 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1071 Sections

5. The dreams of the Manichees and of Servetus, as to the origin of the soul, refuted. Also of Osiander, who denies that there is any image of God in man without essential righteousness.
6. The doctrine of philosophers as to the faculties of the soul generally discordant, doubtful, and obscure. The excellence of the soul described. Only one soul in each man. A brief review of the opinion of philosophers as to the faculties of the soul. What to be thought of this opinion.
7. The division of the faculties of the soul into intellect and will, more agreeable to Christian doctrine.
8. The power and office of the intellect and will in man before the fall. Man’s free will. This freedom lost by the fall—a fact unknown to philosophers. The delusion of Pelagians and Papists. Objection as to the fall of man when free, refuted.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-15_05-08/feed/ 0 16:45Sections 5 The dreams of the Manichees and of Servetus as to the origin of the soul refuted Also of Osiander who denies that there is any image of God ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 15, Sections 1-4 – State in which Man was Created https://reformedforum.org/icr1-15_01-04/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-15_01-04/#respond Tue, 06 Apr 2010 06:15:33 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1070 Sections

1. A twofold knowledge of God—viz. before the fall and after it. The former here considered. Particular rules or precautions to be observed in this discussion. What we are taught by a body formed ant of the dust, and tenanted by a spirit.
2. The immortality of the soul proved from, 1. The testimony of conscience. 2. The knowledge of God. 3. The noble faculties with which it is endued. 4. Its activity and wondrous fancies in sleep. 5. Innumerable passages of Scripture.
3. The image of God one of the strongest proofs of the immortality of the soul. What meant by this image. The dreams of Osiander concerning the image of God refuted. Whether any difference between “image” and “likeness.” Another objection of Osiander refuted. The image of God conspicuous in the whole Adam.
4. The image of God is in the soul. Its nature may be learnt from its renewal by Christ. What comprehended under this renewal. What the image of God in man before the fall. In what things it now appears. When and where it will be seen in perfection.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-15_01-04/feed/ 0 21:35Sections 1 A twofold knowledge of God viz before the fall and after it The former here considered Particular rules or precautions to be observed in this discussion What we ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 14, Sections 17-22: In the Creation of the World… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_17-22/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_17-22/#respond Tue, 23 Mar 2010 05:00:58 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1037 Sections

17. Though the devil is always opposed in will and endeavour to the will of God, he can do nothing without his permission and consent.

18. God so overrules wicked spirits as to permit them to try the faithful, and rule over the wicked.

19. The nature of bad angels. They are spiritual essences endued with sense and intelligence.

20. The latter part of the chapter briefly embracing the history of creation, and showing what it is of importance for us to know concerning God.

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21. The special object of this knowledge is to prevent us, through ingratitude or thoughtlessness, from overlooking the perfections of God. Example of this primary knowledge.

22. Another object of this knowledge—viz. that perceiving how these things were created for our use, we may be excited to trust in God, pray to him, and love him.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_17-22/feed/ 0 19:17Sections 17 Though the devil is always opposed in will and endeavour to the will of God he can do nothing without his permission and consent 18 God so overrules ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 14, Sections 12-16: In the Creation of the World https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_12-16/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_12-16/#respond Tue, 16 Mar 2010 05:00:12 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1030 Sections

12. Use of the doctrine of Scripture concerning the holy angels.
13. The doctrine concerning bad angels or devils reduced to four heads. 1. That we may guard against their wiles and assaults.
14. That we may be stimulated to exercises of piety. Why one angel in the singular number often spoken of.
15. The devil being described as the enemy of man, we should perpetually war against him.
16. The wickedness of the devil not by creation but by corruption. Vain and useless to inquire into the mode, time, and character of the fall of angels.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_12-16/feed/ 0 11:41Sections 12 Use of the doctrine of Scripture concerning the holy angels 13 The doctrine concerning bad angels or devils reduced to four heads 1 That we may guard against ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 14, Sections 7-11: In the Creation of the World… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_07-11/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_07-11/#respond Tue, 02 Mar 2010 05:00:46 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=1015 Sections

7. A kind of prefects over kingdoms and provinces, but specially the guardians of the elect. Not certain that every believer is under the charge of a single angel. Enough, that all angels watch over the safety of the Church.
8. The number and orders of angels not defined. Why angels said to be winged.
9. Angels are ministering spirits and spiritual essences.
10. The heathen error of placing angels on the throne of God refuted. 1. By passages of Scripture.
11. Refutation continued. 2. By inferences from other passages. Why God employs the ministry of angels.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_07-11/feed/ 0 13:17Sections 7 A kind of prefects over kingdoms and provinces but specially the guardians of the elect Not certain that every believer is under the charge of a single angel ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 14, Sections 1-6: In the Creation of the World… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_1-6/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_1-6/#comments Tue, 16 Feb 2010 05:00:51 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=994 1. The mere fact of creation should lead us to acknowledge God, but to prevent our falling away to Gentile fictions, God has been pleased to furnish a history of the creation. An impious objection, Why the world was not created sooner? Answer to it. Shrewd saying of an old man.
2. For the same reason, the world was created, not in an instant, but in six days. The order of creation described, showing that Adam was not created until God had, with infinite goodness made ample provision for him.
3. The doctrine concerning angels expounded. 1. That we may learn from them also to acknowledge God. 2. That we may be put on our guard against the errors of the worshippers of angels and the Manichees. Manicheeism refuted. Rule of piety.
4. The angels created by God. At what time and in what order it is inexpedient to inquire. The garrulity of the Pseudo-Dionysius.
5. The nature, offices, and various names of angels.
6. Angels the dispensers of the divine beneficence to us.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-14_1-6/feed/ 1 20:091 The mere fact of creation should lead us to acknowledge God but to prevent our falling away to Gentile fictions God has been pleased to furnish a history of ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 13, Sections 26-29: The Unity of the Divine Essence https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_26-29/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_26-29/#respond Tue, 09 Feb 2010 05:00:30 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=987 Sections

26. Previous refutations further explained.
27. Reply to certain passages produced from Irenaeus. The meaning of Irenaeus.
28. Reply to certain passages produced from Tertullian. The meaning of Tertullian.
29. Anti Trinitarians refuted by ancient Christian writers; e.g., Justin, Hilary. Objections drawn from writings improperly attributed to Ignatius. Conclusion of the whole discussion concerning the Trinity.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_26-29/feed/ 0 14:28Sections 26 Previous refutations further explained 27 Reply to certain passages produced from Irenaeus The meaning of Irenaeus 28 Reply to certain passages produced from Tertullian The meaning of Tertullian ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 13, Sections 21-25: The Unity of the Divine Essence https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_21-25/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_21-25/#respond Tue, 02 Feb 2010 05:00:33 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=977 Sections

21. Refutation of Arian, Macedonian, and Anti Trinitarian heresies. Caution to be observed.
22. The more modern Anti Trinitarians, and especially Servetus, refuted.
23. Other Anti Trinitarians refuted. No good objection that Christ is called the Son of God, since he is also called God. Impious absurdities of some heretics.
24. The name of God sometimes given to the Son absolutely as to the Father. Same as to other attributes. Objections refuted.
25. Objections further refuted. Caution to be used

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_21-25/feed/ 0 24:55Sections 21 Refutation of Arian Macedonian and Anti Trinitarian heresies Caution to be observed 22 The more modern Anti Trinitarians and especially Servetus refuted 23 Other Anti Trinitarians refuted No ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 13, Sections 16-20: The Unity of the Divine Essence https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_16-20/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_16-20/#respond Tue, 26 Jan 2010 05:00:58 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=968 Sections

16. What view to be taken of the Trinity. The form of Christian baptism proves that there are in one essence. The Arian and Macedonian heresies.
17. Of the distinction of Persons. They are distinct, but not divided. This proved.
18. Analogies taken from human affairs to be cautiously used. Due regard to be paid to those mentioned by Scripture.
19. How the Three Persons not only do not destroy, but constitute the most perfect unity
20. Conclusion of this part of the chapter, and summary of the true doctrine concerning the unity of Essence and the Three Persons.

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https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_16-20/feed/ 0 14:34Sections 16 What view to be taken of the Trinity The form of Christian baptism proves that there are in one essence The Arian and Macedonian heresies 17 Of the ...Reformed Forumnono
Book 1, Chapter 13, Sections 11-15: The Unity of the Divine Essence https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_11-15/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_11-15/#respond Tue, 12 Jan 2010 05:00:18 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=949
  • Passages from the New Testament in which the Son is acknowledged to be the Lord of Hosts, the Judge of the world, the God of glory, the Creator of the world, the Lord of angels, the King of the Church, the eternal Λόγος, God blessed for ever, God manifest in the flesh, the equal of God, the true God and eternal life, the Lord and God of all believers. Therefore, the Eternal God.
  • Christ the Creator, Preserver, Redeemer, and Searcher of hearts. Therefore, the Eternal God.
  • Christ, by his own inherent power, wrought miracles, and bestowed the power of working them on others. Out of the Eternal God there is no salvation, no righteousness, no life. All these are in Christ. Christ, consequently, is the Eternal God. He in whom we believe and hope, to whom we pray, whom the Church acknowledges as the Saviour of the faithful, whom to know is life eternal, in whom the pious glory, and through whom eternal blessings are communicated, is the Eternal God. All these Christ is, and, therefore, he is God.
  • The Divinity of the Spirit proved. I. He is the Creator and Preserver of the world. II. He sent the Prophets. III. He quickeneth all things. IV. He is everywhere present. V. He renews the saints, and fits them for eternal life. VI. All the offices of Deity belong to him.
  • The Divinity of the Spirit continued. VII. He is called God. VIII. Blasphemy against him is not forgiven.
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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_11-15/feed/ 0 20:09Passages from the New Testament in which the Son is acknowledged to be the Lord of Hosts the Judge of the world the God of glory the Creator of the ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 13, Sections 6-10: The Unity of the Divine Essence… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_06-10/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_06-10/#respond Tue, 05 Jan 2010 05:00:08 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=919
  • After the definition of the term follows a definition and explanation of the thing meant by it. The distinction of Persons.
  • Proofs of the eternal Deity of the Son. The Son the λόγος of the Eternal Father, and, therefore, the Son Eternal God. Objection. Reply.
  • Objection, that the Λόγος began to be when the creating God spoke. Answer confirmed by Scripture and argument.
  • The Son called God and Jehovah. Other names of the Eternal Father applied to him in the Old Testament. He is, therefore, the Eternal God. Another objection refuted. Case of the Jews explained.
  • The angel who appeared to the fathers under the Law asserts that he is Jehovah. That angel was the Λόγος of the Eternal Father. The Son being that Λόγος is Eternal God. Impiety of Servetus refuted. Why the Son appeared in the form of an angel.
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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_06-10/feed/ 0 18:00After the definition of the term follows a definition and explanation of the thing meant by it The distinction of Persons Proofs of the eternal Deity of the Son The ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 13, Sections 1-5: The Unity of the Divine Essence… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_01-05/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_01-05/#respond Tue, 29 Dec 2009 05:00:00 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=910 Sections
    1. Scripture, in teaching that the essence of God is immense and spiritual, refutes not only idolaters and the foolish wisdom of the world, but also the Manichees and Anthropomorphites. These latter briefly refuted.
    2. In this one essence are three persons, yet so that neither is there a triple God, nor is the simple essence of God divided. Meaning of the word Person in this discussion. Three hypostases in God, or the essence of God.
    3. Objection of those who, in this discussion, reject the use of the word Person. Answer 1. That it is not a foreign term, but is employed for the explanation of sacred mysteries.
    4. Answer continued, 2. The orthodox compelled to use the terms, Trinity, Subsistence, and Person. Examples from the case of the Asians and Sabellians.
    5. Answer continued, 3. The ancient Church, though differing somewhat in the explanation of these terms, agree in substance. Proofs from Hilary, Jerome, Augustine, in their use of the words Essence, Substance, Hypostasis. 4. Provided the orthodox meaning is retained, there should be no dispute about mere terms. But those who object to the terms usually favour the Arian and Sabellian heresy.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-13_01-05/feed/ 0 20:30Sections Scripture in teaching that the essence of God is immense and spiritual refutes not only idolaters and the foolish wisdom of the world but also the Manichees and Anthropomorphites ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 12: God Distinguished from Idols… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-12/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-12/#respond Tue, 22 Dec 2009 05:00:49 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=909 Sections
    1. Scripture, in teaching that there is but one God, does not make a dispute about words, but attributes all honour and religious worship to him alone. This proved, 1st, By the etymology of the term. 2d, By the testimony of God himself, when he declares that he is a jealous God, and will not allow himself to be confounded with any fictitious Deity.
    2. The Papists in opposing this pure doctrine, gain nothing by their distinction of δυλια and λατρια.
    3. Passages of Scripture subversive of the Papistical distinction, and proving that religious worship is due to God alone. Perversions of Divine worship.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-12/feed/ 0 11:41Sections Scripture in teaching that there is but one God does not make a dispute about words but attributes all honour and religious worship to him alone This proved 1st ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 11, Sections 13-16: Impiety of Attributing a Visible Form to God… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11_13-16/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11_13-16/#respond Tue, 08 Dec 2009 05:00:33 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=888 Sections
    • Whether it is expedient to have images in Christian temples.
    • Absurd defence of the worship of images by the second so-called Council of Nice. Sophisms or perversions of Scripture in defence of images in churches.
    • Passages adduced in support of the worship of images.
    • The blasphemous expressions of some ancient idolaters approved by not a few of the more modern, both in word and deed.
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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11_13-16/feed/ 0 11:11Sections Whether it is expedient to have images in Christian temples Absurd defence of the worship of images by the second so called Council of Nice Sophisms or perversions of ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 11, Sections 9-12: Impiety of Attributing a Visible Form to God… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11_09-12/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11_09-12/#respond Tue, 01 Dec 2009 05:00:47 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=879 Sections
    • Of the worship of images. Its nature. A pretext of idolaters refuted. Pretexts of the heathen. Genius of idolaters.
    • Evasion of the Papists. Their agreement with ancient idolaters.
    • Refutation of another evasion or sophism—viz. the distinction of δυλια and λατρια.
    • Third division of the chapter—viz. the use and abuse of images.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11_09-12/feed/ 0 11:58Sections Of the worship of images Its nature A pretext of idolaters refuted Pretexts of the heathen Genius of idolaters Evasion of the Papists Their agreement with ancient idolaters Refutation ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 11, Sections 5-8: Impiety of Attributing a Visible Form to God… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11_05_08/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11_05_08/#respond Tue, 24 Nov 2009 13:37:35 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=873 Sections
    1. Objection,—That images are the books of the unlearned. Objection answered, 1. Scripture declares images to be teachers of vanity and lies.
    2. Answer continued, 2. Ancient Theologians condemn the formation and worship of idols.
    3. Answer continued,—3. The use of images condemned by the luxury and meretricious ornaments given to them in Popish Churches.
    4. The Church must be trained in true piety by another method.
    5. The second division of the chapter. Origin of idols or images. Its rise shortly after the flood. Its continual progress.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11_05_08/feed/ 0 12:50Sections Objection That images are the books of the unlearned Objection answered 1 Scripture declares images to be teachers of vanity and lies Answer continued 2 Ancient Theologians condemn the ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 11, Sections 1-4: Impiety of Attributing a Visible Form to God… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11-01_04/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11-01_04/#respond Tue, 17 Nov 2009 05:00:07 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=865 Sections
    1. God is opposed to idols, that all may know he is the only fit witness to himself. He expressly forbids any attempt to represent him by a bodily shape.
    2. Reasons for this prohibition from Moses, Isaiah, and Paul. The complaint of a heathen. It should put the worshipers of idols to shame.
    3. Consideration of an objection taken from various passages in Moses. The Cherubim and Seraphim show that images are not fit to represent divine mysteries. The Cherubim belonged to the tutelage of the Law.
    4. The materials of which idols are made, abundantly refute the fiction of idolaters. Confirmation from Isaiah and others. Absurd precaution of the Greeks.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-11-01_04/feed/ 0 17:31Sections God is opposed to idols that all may know he is the only fit witness to himself He expressly forbids any attempt to represent him by a bodily shape ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 10: In Scripture, the True God Opposed, Exclusively, to all the Gods of the Heathen https://reformedforum.org/icr1-10/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-10/#respond Tue, 10 Nov 2009 05:00:20 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=859 Sections
    1. Explanation of the knowledge of God resumed. God as manifested in Scripture, the same as delineated in his works.
    2. The attributes of God as described by Moses, David, and Jeremiah. Explanation of the attributes. Summary. Uses of this knowledge.
    3. Scripture, in directing us to the true God, excludes the gods of the heathen, who, however, in some sense, held the unity of God.

    Read on CCEL.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-10/feed/ 0 9:32Sections Explanation of the knowledge of God resumed God as manifested in Scripture the same as delineated in his works The attributes of God as described by Moses David and ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 9: All the Principles of Piety Subverted by Fanatics, Who Substitute Revelations for Scripture https://reformedforum.org/icr1-09/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-09/#respond Tue, 03 Nov 2009 05:00:11 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=848 Sections
    1. The temper and error of the Libertines, who take to themselves the name of spiritual, briefly described. Their refutation. 1. The Apostles and all true Christians have embraced the written Word. This confirmed by a passage in Isaiah; also by the example and words of Paul. 2. The Spirit of Christ seals the doctrine of the written Word on the minds of the godly.
    2. Refutation continued. 3. The impositions of Satan cannot be detected without the aid of the written Word. First Objection. The Answer to it.
    3. Second Objection from the words of Paul as to the letter and spirit. The Answer, with an explanation of Paul’s meaning. How the Spirit and the written Word are indissolubly connected.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-09/feed/ 0 11:49Sections The temper and error of the Libertines who take to themselves the name of spiritual briefly described Their refutation 1 The Apostles and all true Christians have embraced the ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 8: The Credibility of Scripture… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-08/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-08/#respond Tue, 27 Oct 2009 14:46:53 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=845 Sections

    1. Secondary helps to establish the credibility of Scripture. I. The arrangement of the sacred volume. II. Its dignity. III. Its truth. IV. Its simplicity. V. Its efficacy.
    2. The majesty conspicuous in the writings of the Prophets.
    3. Special proofs from the Old Testament. I. The antiquity of the Books of Moses.
    4. This antiquity contrasted with the dreams of the Egyptians. II. The majesty of the Books of Moses.
    5. The miracles and prophecies of Moses. A profane objection refuted.
    6. Another profane objection refuted.
    7. The prophecies of Moses as to the sceptre not departing from Judah, and the calling of the Gentiles.
    8. The predictions of other prophets. The destruction of Jerusalem; and the return from the Babylonish captivity. Harmony of the Prophets. The celebrated prophecy of Daniel.
    9. Objection against Moses and the Prophets. Answer to it.
    10. Another objection and answer. Of the wondrous Providence of God in the preservation of the sacred books. The Greek Translation. The carefulness of the Jews.
    11. Special proofs from the New Testament. I. The harmony of the Evangelists, and the sublime simplicity of their writings. II. The majesty of John, Paul, and Peter. III. The calling of the Apostles. IV. The conversion of Paul.
    12. Proofs from Church history. I. Perpetual consent of the Church in receiving and preserving the truth. II. The invincible power of the truth itself. III. Agreement among the godly, not withstanding of their many differences in other respects.
    13. The constancy of the martyrs. Conclusion. Proofs of this description only of use after the certainty of Scripture has been established in the heart by the Holy Spirit.

    read chapter at CCEL

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-08/feed/ 0 36:33Sections Secondary helps to establish the credibility of Scripture I The arrangement of the sacred volume II Its dignity III Its truth IV Its simplicity V Its efficacy The majesty ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 7: The Testimony of the Spirit Necessary to Give Full Authority to Scripture https://reformedforum.org/icr1-07/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-07/#respond Tue, 20 Oct 2009 12:50:27 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=840 Sections
    1. The authority of Scripture derived not from men, but from the Spirit of God. Objection, That Scripture depends on the decision of the Church. Refutation, I. The truth of God would thus be subjected to the will of man. II. It is insulting to the Holy Spirit. III. It establishes a tyranny in the Church. IV. It forms a mass of errors. V. It subverts conscience. VI. It exposes our faith to the scoffs of the profane.
    2. Another reply to the objection drawn from the words of the Apostle Paul. Solution of the difficulties started by opponents. A second objection refuted.
    3. A third objection founded on a sentiment of Augustine considered.
    4. Conclusion, That the authority of Scripture is founded on its being spoken by God. This confirmed by the conscience of the godly, and the consent of all men of the least candour. A fourth objection common in the mouths of the profane. Refutation.
    5. Last and necessary conclusion, That the authority of Scripture is sealed on the hearts of believers by the testimony of the Holy Spirit. The certainty of this testimony. Confirmation of it from a passage of Isaiah, and the experience of believers. Also, from another passage of Isaiah.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-07/feed/ 0 20:11Sections The authority of Scripture derived not from men but from the Spirit of God Objection That Scripture depends on the decision of the Church Refutation I The truth of ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 6: The Need of Scripture, as a Guide and Teacher, in Coming to God as a Creator https://reformedforum.org/icr1-06/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-06/#respond Tue, 13 Oct 2009 05:00:46 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=832 John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion translated by Henry Beveridge. Book 1, Chapter 6.

    Sections

    1. God gives his elect a better help to the knowledge of himself—viz. the Holy Scriptures. This he did from the very first.
    2. First, By oracles and visions, and the ministry of the Patriarchs. Secondly, By the promulgation of the Law, and the preaching of the Prophets. Why the doctrines of religion are committed to writing.
    3. This view confirmed, 1. By the depravity of our nature making it necessary in every one who would know God to have recourse to the word; 2. From those passages of the Psalms in which God is introduced as reigning.
    4. Another confirmation from certain direct statements in the Psalms. Lastly, From the words of our Saviour.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-06/feed/ 0 13:49John Calvin s Institutes of the Christian Religion translated by Henry Beveridge Book 1 Chapter 6 Sections God gives his elect a better help to the knowledge of himself viz ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 5: The Knowledge of God Conspicuous in the Creation, and Continual Government of the World https://reformedforum.org/icr1-05/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-05/#respond Tue, 06 Oct 2009 05:00:15 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=818 This chapter consists of two parts: 1. The former, which occupies the first ten sections, divides all the works of God into two great classes, and elucidates the knowledge of God as displayed in each class. The one class is treated of in the first six, and the other in the four following sections: 2. The latter part of the chapter shows, that, in consequence of the extreme stupidity of men, those manifestations of God, however perspicuous, lead to no useful result. This latter part, which commences at the eleventh section, is continued to the end of the chapter.

    Sections.

    1. The invisible and incomprehensible essence of God, to a certain extent, made visible in his works.
    2. This declared by the first class of works—viz. the admirable motions of the heavens and the earth, the symmetry of the human body, and the connection of its parts; in short, the various objects which are presented to every eye.
    3. This more especially manifested in the structure of the human body.
    4. The shameful ingratitude of disregarding God, who, in such a variety of ways, is manifested within us. The still more shameful ingratitude of contemplating the endowments of the soul, without ascending to Him who gave them. No objection can be founded on any supposed organism in the soul.
    5. The powers and actions of the soul, a proof of its separate existence from the body. Proofs of the soul’s immortality. Objection that the whole world is quickened by one soul. Reply to the objection. Its impiety.
    6. Conclusion from what has been said—viz. that the omnipotence, eternity, and goodness of God, may be learned from the first class of works, i.e., those which are in accordance with the ordinary course of nature.
    7. The second class of works—viz. those above the ordinary course of nature, afford clear evidence of the perfections of God, especially his goodness, justice, and mercy.
    8. Also his providence, power, and wisdom.
    9. Proofs and illustrations of the divine Majesty. The use of them—viz. the acquisition of divine knowledge in combination with true piety.
    10. The tendency of the knowledge of God to inspire the righteous with the hope of future life, and remind the wicked of the punishments reserved for them. Its tendency, moreover, to keep alive in the hearts of the righteous a sense of the divine goodness.
    11. The second part of the chapter, which describes the stupidity both of learned and unlearned, in ascribing the whole order of things, and the admirable arrangements of divine Providence, to fortune.
    12. Hence Polytheism, with all its abominations, and the endless and irreconcilable opinions of the philosophers concerning God.
    13. All guilty of revolt from God, corrupting pure religion, either by following general custom, or the impious consent of antiquity.
    14. Though irradiated by the wondrous glories of creation, we cease not to follow our own ways.
    15. Our conduct altogether inexcusable, the dullness of perception being attributable to ourselves, while we are fully reminded of the true path, both by the structure and the government of the world.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-05/feed/ 0 48:39This chapter consists of two parts 1 The former which occupies the first ten sections divides all the works of God into two great classes and elucidates the knowledge of ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 4: The Knowledge of God Stifled or Corrupted, Ignorantly or Maliciously https://reformedforum.org/icr1-04/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-04/#respond Tue, 29 Sep 2009 05:00:32 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=803 Sections.

    1. The knowledge of God suppressed by ignorance, many falling away into superstition. Such persons, however, inexcusable, because their error is accompanied with pride and stubbornness.

    2. Stubbornness the companion of impiety.

    3. No pretext can justify superstition. This proved, first, from reason; and, secondly, from Scripture.

    4. The wicked never willingly come into the presence of God. Hence their hypocrisy. Hence, too, their sense of Deity leads to no good result.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-04/feed/ 0 11:51Sections 1 The knowledge of God suppressed by ignorance many falling away into superstition Such persons however inexcusable because their error is accompanied with pride and stubbornness 2 Stubbornness the ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 3: The Knowledge of God Naturally… https://reformedforum.org/icr1-03/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-03/#respond Tue, 22 Sep 2009 05:00:25 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/book-1-chapter-3/ Book 1, Chapter 3 from John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion.

    1. The knowledge of God being manifested to all makes the reprobate without excuse. Universal belief and acknowledgement of the existence of God.

    2. Objection—that religion and the belief of a Deity are the inventions of crafty politicians. Refutation of the objection. This universal belief confirmed by the examples of wicked men and Atheists.

    3. Confirmed also by the vain endeavours of the wicked to banish all fear of God from their minds. Conclusion, that the knowledge of God is naturally implanted in the human mind.

    1. That there exists in the human minds and indeed by natural instinct, some sense of Deity, we hold to be beyond dispute, since God himself, to prevent any man from pretending ignorance, has endued all men with some idea of his Godhead, the memory of which he constantly renews and occasionally enlarges, that all to a man being aware that there is a God, and that he is their Maker, may be condemned by their own conscience when they neither worship him nor consecrate their lives to his service. Certainly, if there is any quarter where it may be supposed that God is unknown, the most likely for such an instance to exist is among the dullest tribes farthest removed from civilisation. But, as a heathen tells us, there is no nation so barbarous, no race so brutish, as not to be imbued with the conviction that there is a God. Even those who, in other respects, seem to differ least from the lower animals, constantly retain some sense of religion; so thoroughly has this common conviction possessed the mind, so firmly is it stamped on the breasts of all men. Since, then, there never has been, from the very first, any quarter of the globe, any city, any household even, without religion, this amounts to a tacit confession, that a sense of Deity is inscribed on every heart. Nay, even idolatry is ample evidence of this fact. For we know how reluctant man is to lower himself, in order to set other creatures above him. Therefore, when he chooses to worship wood and stone rather than be thought to have no God, it is evident how very strong this impression of a Deity must be; since it is more difficult to obliterate it from the mind of man, than to break down the feelings of his nature,—these certainly being broken down, when, in opposition to his natural haughtiness, he spontaneously humbles himself before the meanest object as an act of reverence to God.

    2. It is most absurd, therefore, to maintain, as some do, that religion was devised by the cunning and craft of a few individuals, as a means of keeping the body of the people in due subjection, while there was nothing which those very individuals, while teaching others to worship God, less believed than the existence of a God. I readily acknowledge, that designing men have introduced a vast number of fictions into religion, with the view of inspiring the populace with reverence or striking them with terror, and thereby rendering them more obsequious; but they never could have succeeded in this, had the minds of men not been previously imbued with that uniform belief in God, from which, as from its seed, the religious propensity springs. And it is altogether incredible that those who, in the matter of religion, cunningly imposed on their ruder neighbours, were altogether devoid of a knowledge of God. For though in old times there were some, and in the present day not a few are found who deny the being of a God, yet, whether they will or not, they occasionally feel the truth which they are desirous not to know. We do not read of any man who broke out into more unbridled and audacious contempt of the Deity than C. Caligula, and yet none showed greater dread when any indication of divine wrath was manifested. Thus, however unwilling, he shook with terror before the God whom he professedly studied to condemn. You may every day see the same thing happening to his modern imitators. The most audacious despiser of God is most easily disturbed, trembling at the sound of a falling leaf. How so, unless in vindication of the divine majesty, which smites their consciences the more strongly the more they endeavour to flee from it. They all, indeed, look out for hiding-places where they may conceal themselves from the presence of the Lord, and again efface it from their mind; but after all their efforts they remain caught within the net. Though the conviction may occasionally seem to vanish for a moment, it immediately returns, and rushes in with new impetuosity, so that any interval of relief from the gnawing of conscience is not unlike the slumber of the intoxicated or the insane, who have no quiet rest in sleep, but are continually haunted with dire horrific dreams. Even the wicked themselves, therefore, are an example of the fact that some idea of God always exists in every human mind.

    3. All men of sound Judgment will therefore hold, that a sense of Deity is indelibly engraven on the human heart. And that this belief is naturally engendered in all, and thoroughly fixed as it were in our very bones, is strikingly attested by the contumacy of the wicked, who, though they struggle furiously, are unable to extricate themselves from the fear of God. Though Diagoras, and others of like stamps make themselves merry with whatever has been believed in all ages concerning religion, and Dionysus scoffs at the Judgment of heaven, it is but a Sardonian grin; for the worm of conscience, keener than burning steel, is gnawing them within. I do not say with Cicero, that errors wear out by age, and that religion increases and grows better day by day. For the world (as will be shortly seen) labours as much as it can to shake off all knowledge of God, and corrupts his worship in innumerable ways. I only say, that, when the stupid hardness of heart, which the wicked eagerly court as a means of despising God, becomes enfeebled, the sense of Deity, which of all things they wished most to be extinguished, is still in vigour, and now and then breaks forth. Whence we infer, that this is not a doctrine which is first learned at school, but one as to which every man is, from the womb, his own master; one which nature herself allows no individual to forget, though many, with all their might, strive to do so. Moreover, if all are born and live for the express purpose of learning to know God, and if the knowledge of God, in so far as it fails to produce this effect, is fleeting and vain, it is clear that all those who do not direct the whole thoughts and actions of their lives to this end fail to fulfil the law of their being. This did not escape the observation even of philosophers. For it is the very thing which Plato meant (in Phœd. et Theact.) when he taught, as he often does, that the chief good of the soul consists in resemblance to God; i.e., when, by means of knowing him, she is wholly transformed into him. Thus Gryllus, also, in Plutarch (lib. guod bruta anim. ratione utantur), reasons most skilfully, when he affirms that, if once religion is banished from the lives of men, they not only in no respect excel, but are, in many respects, much more wretched than the brutes, since, being exposed to so many forms of evil, they continually drag on a troubled and restless existence: that the only thing, therefore, which makes them superior is the worship of God, through which alone they aspire to immortality.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-03/feed/ 0 9:00Book 1 Chapter 3 from John Calvin s Institutes of the Christian Religion 1 The knowledge of God being manifested to all makes the reprobate without excuse Universal belief and ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 2: What it is to Know God, Tendency of this Knowledge https://reformedforum.org/icr1-02/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-02/#comments Tue, 15 Sep 2009 05:00:37 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=775 John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion Book 1, Chapter 2.

    1. By the knowledge of God, I understand that by which we not only conceive that there is some God, but also apprehend what it is for our interest, and conducive to his glory, what, in short, it is befitting to know concerning him. For, properly speaking, we cannot say that God is known where there is no religion or piety. I am not now referring to that species of knowledge by which men, in themselves lost and under curse, apprehend God as a Redeemer in Christ the Mediator. I speak only of that simple and primitive knowledge, to which the mere course of nature would have conducted us, had Adam stood upright. For although no man will now, in the present ruin of the human race, perceive God to be either a father, or the author of salvation, or propitious in any respect, until Christ interpose to make our peace; still it is one thing to perceive that God our Maker supports us by his power, rules us by his providence, fosters us by his goodness, and visits us with all kinds of blessings, and another thing to embrace the grace of reconciliation offered to us in Christ. Since, then, the Lord first appears, as well in the creation of the world as in the general doctrine of Scripture, simply as a Creator, and afterwards as a Redeemer in Christ,—a twofold knowledge of him hence arises: of these the former is now to be considered, the latter will afterwards follow in its order. But although our mind cannot conceive of God, without rendering some worship to him, it will not, however, be sufficient simply to hold that he is the only being whom all ought to worship and adore, unless we are also persuaded that he is the fountain of all goodness, and that we must seek everything in him, and in none but him. My meaning is: we must be persuaded not only that as he once formed the world, so he sustains it by his boundless power, governs it by his wisdom, preserves it by his goodness, in particular, rules the human race with justice and Judgment, bears with them in mercy, shields them by his protection; but also that not a particle of light, or wisdom, or justice, or power, or rectitude, or genuine truth, will anywhere be found, which does not flow from him, and of which he is not the cause; in this way we must learn to expect and ask all things from him, and thankfully ascribe to him whatever we receive. For this sense of the divine perfections is the proper master to teach us piety, out of which religion springs. By piety I mean that union of reverence and love to God which the knowledge of his benefits inspires. For, until men feel that they owe everything to God, that they are cherished by his paternal care, and that he is the author of all their blessings, so that nought is to be looked for away from him, they will never submit to him in voluntary obedience; nay, unless they place their entire happiness in him, they will never yield up their whole selves to him in truth and sincerity.

    2. Those, therefore, who, in considering this question, propose to inquire what the essence of God is, only delude us with frigid speculations,—it being much more our interest to know what kind of being God is, and what things are agreeable to his nature. For, of what use is it to join Epicures in acknowledging some God who has cast off the care of the world, and only delights himself in ease? What avails it, in short, to know a God with whom we have nothing to do? The effect of our knowledge rather ought to be, first, to teach us reverence and fear; and, secondly, to induce us, under its guidance and teaching, to ask every good thing from him, and, when it is received, ascribe it to him. For how can the idea of God enter your mind without instantly giving rise to the thought, that since you are his workmanship, you are bound, by the very law of creation, to submit to his authority?—that your life is due to him?—that whatever you do ought to have reference to him? If so, it undoubtedly follows that your life is sadly corrupted, if it is not framed in obedience to him, since his will ought to be the law of our lives. On the other hand, your idea of his nature is not clear unless you acknowledge him to be the origin and fountain of all goodness. Hence would arise both confidence in him, and a desire of cleaving to him, did not the depravity of the human mind lead it away from the proper course of investigation.

    For, first of all, the pious mind does not devise for itself any kind of God, but looks alone to the one true God; nor does it feign for him any character it pleases, but is contented to have him in the character in which he manifests himself always guarding, with the utmost diligences against transgressing his will, and wandering, with daring presumptions from the right path. He by whom God is thus known perceiving how he governs all things, confides in him as his guardian and protector, and casts himself entirely upon his faithfulness,—perceiving him to be the source of every blessing, if he is in any strait or feels any want, he instantly recurs to his protection and trusts to his aid,—persuaded that he is good and merciful, he reclines upon him with sure confidence, and doubts not that, in the divine clemency, a remedy will be provided for his every time of need,—acknowledging him as his Father and his Lords he considers himself bound to have respect to his authority in all things, to reverence his majesty aim at the advancement of his glory, and obey his commands,—regarding him as a just judge, armed with severity to punish crimes, he keeps the Judgment-seat always in his view. Standing in awe of it, he curbs himself, and fears to provoke his anger. Nevertheless, he is not so terrified by an apprehension of Judgment as to wish he could withdraw himself, even if the means of escape lay before him; nay, he embraces him not less as the avenger of wickedness than as the rewarder of the righteous; because he perceives that it equally appertains to his glory to store up punishment for the one, and eternal life for the other. Besides, it is not the mere fear of punishment that restrains him from sin. Loving and revering God as his father, honouring and obeying him as his master, although there were no hell, he would revolt at the very idea of offending him.

    Such is pure and genuine religion, namely, confidence in God coupled with serious fear—fear, which both includes in it willing reverence, and brings along with it such legitimate worship as is prescribed by the law. And it ought to be more carefully considered that all men promiscuously do homage to God, but very few truly reverence him. On all hands there is abundance of ostentatious ceremonies, but sincerity of heart is rare.

    [read this on CCEL]

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-02/feed/ 1 8:07John Calvin s Institutes of the Christian Religion Book 1 Chapter 2 1 By the knowledge of God I understand that by which we not only conceive that there is ...Reformed Forumnono
    Book 1, Chapter 1: The Knowledge of God and of Ourselves Mutually Connected – Nature of the Connection https://reformedforum.org/icr1-01/ https://reformedforum.org/icr1-01/#comments Wed, 09 Sep 2009 05:00:57 +0000 http://reformedforum.wpengine.com/?p=770 John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion Book 1, Chapter 1.

    1. Our wisdom, in so far as it ought to be deemed true and solid Wisdom, consists almost entirely of two parts: the knowledge of God and of ourselves. But as these are connected together by many ties, it is not easy to determine which of the two precedes and gives birth to the other. For, in the first place, no man can survey himself without forthwith turning his thoughts towards the God in whom he lives and moves; because it is perfectly obvious, that the endowments which we possess cannot possibly be from ourselves; nay, that our very being is nothing else than subsistence in God alone. In the second place, those blessings which unceasingly distil to us from heaven, are like streams conducting us to the fountain. Here, again, the infinitude of good which resides in God becomes more apparent from our poverty. In particular, the miserable ruin into which the revolt of the first man has plunged us, compels us to turn our eyes upwards; not only that while hungry and famishing we may thence ask what we want, but being aroused by fear may learn humility. For as there exists in man something like a world of misery, and ever since we were stript of the divine attire our naked shame discloses an immense series of disgraceful properties every man, being stung by the consciousness of his own unhappiness, in this way necessarily obtains at least some knowledge of God. Thus, our feeling of ignorance, vanity, want, weakness, in short, depravity and corruption, reminds us (see Calvin on John 4:10), that in the Lord, and none but He, dwell the true light of wisdom, solid virtue, exuberant goodness. We are accordingly urged by our own evil things to consider the good things of God; and, indeed, we cannot aspire to Him in earnest until we have begun to be displeased with ourselves. For what man is not disposed to rest in himself? Who, in fact, does not thus rest, so long as he is unknown to himself; that is, so long as he is contented with his own endowments, and unconscious or unmindful of his misery? Every person, therefore, on coming to the knowledge of himself, is not only urged to seek God, but is also led as by the hand to find him.

    2. On the other hand, it is evident that man never attains to a true self-knowledge until he has previously contemplated the face of God, and come down after such contemplation to look into himself. For (such is our innate pride) we always seem to ourselves just, and upright, and wise, and holy, until we are convinced, by clear evidence, of our injustice, vileness, folly, and impurity. Convinced, however, we are not, if we look to ourselves only, and not to the Lord also —He being the only standard by the application of which this conviction can be produced. For, since we are all naturally prone to hypocrisy, any empty semblance of righteousness is quite enough to satisfy us instead of righteousness itself. And since nothing appears within us or around us that is not tainted with very great impurity, so long as we keep our mind within the confines of human pollution, anything which is in some small degree less defiled delights us as if it were most pure just as an eye, to which nothing but black had been previously presented, deems an object of a whitish, or even of a brownish hue, to be perfectly white. Nay, the bodily sense may furnish a still stronger illustration of the extent to which we are deluded in estimating the powers of the mind. If, at mid-day, we either look down to the ground, or on the surrounding objects which lie open to our view, we think ourselves endued with a very strong and piercing eyesight; but when we look up to the sun, and gaze at it unveiled, the sight which did excellently well for the earth is instantly so dazzled and confounded by the refulgence, as to oblige us to confess that our acuteness in discerning terrestrial objects is mere dimness when applied to the sun. Thus too, it happens in estimating our spiritual qualities. So long as we do not look beyond the earth, we are quite pleased with our own righteousness, wisdom, and virtue; we address ourselves in the most flattering terms, and seem only less than demigods. But should we once begin to raise our thoughts to God, and reflect what kind of Being he is, and how absolute the perfection of that righteousness, and wisdom, and virtue, to which, as a standard, we are bound to be conformed, what formerly delighted us by its false show of righteousness will become polluted with the greatest iniquity; what strangely imposed upon us under the name of wisdom will disgust by its extreme folly; and what presented the appearance of virtuous energy will be condemned as the most miserable impotence. So far are those qualities in us, which seem most perfect, from corresponding to the divine purity.

    3. Hence that dread and amazement with which as Scripture uniformly relates, holy men were struck and overwhelmed whenever they beheld the presence of God. When we see those who previously stood firm and secure so quaking with terror, that the fear of death takes hold of them, nay, they are, in a manner, swallowed up and annihilated, the inference to be drawn is that men are never duly touched and impressed with a conviction of their insignificance, until they have contrasted themselves with the majesty of God. Frequent examples of this consternation occur both in the Book of Judges and the Prophetical Writings; so much so, that it was a common expression among the people of God, “We shall die, for we have seen the Lord.” Hence the Book of Job, also, in humbling men under a conviction of their folly, feebleness, and pollution, always derives its chief argument from descriptions of the Divine wisdom, virtue, and purity. Nor without cause: for we see Abraham the readier to acknowledge himself but dust and ashes the nearer he approaches to behold the glory of the Lord, and Elijah unable to wait with unveiled face for His approach; so dreadful is the sight. And what can man do, man who is but rottenness and a worm, when even the Cherubim themselves must veil their faces in very terror? To this, undoubtedly, the Prophet Isaiah refers, when he says (Isaiah 24:23), “The moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of Hosts shall reign;” i.e., when he shall exhibit his refulgence, and give a nearer view of it, the brightest objects will, in comparison, be covered with darkness.

    But though the knowledge of God and the knowledge of ourselves are bound together by a mutual tie, due arrangement requires that we treat of the former in the first place, and then descend to the latter.

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    https://reformedforum.org/icr1-01/feed/ 5 10:47John Calvin s Institutes of the Christian Religion Book 1 Chapter 1 1 Our wisdom in so far as it ought to be deemed true and solid Wisdom consists almost ...Reformed Forumnono