Book 1, Chapter 13, Sections 1-5: The Unity of the Divine Essence…

Sections

  1. Scripture, in teaching that the essence of God is immense and spiritual, refutes not only idolaters and the foolish wisdom of the world, but also the Manichees and Anthropomorphites. These latter briefly refuted.
  2. In this one essence are three persons, yet so that neither is there a triple God, nor is the simple essence of God divided. Meaning of the word Person in this discussion. Three hypostases in God, or the essence of God.
  3. Objection of those who, in this discussion, reject the use of the word Person. Answer 1. That it is not a foreign term, but is employed for the explanation of sacred mysteries.
  4. Answer continued, 2. The orthodox compelled to use the terms, Trinity, Subsistence, and Person. Examples from the case of the Asians and Sabellians.
  5. Answer continued, 3. The ancient Church, though differing somewhat in the explanation of these terms, agree in substance. Proofs from Hilary, Jerome, Augustine, in their use of the words Essence, Substance, Hypostasis. 4. Provided the orthodox meaning is retained, there should be no dispute about mere terms. But those who object to the terms usually favour the Arian and Sabellian heresy.

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Book 1, Chapter 12: God Distinguished from Idols…

Sections

  1. Scripture, in teaching that there is but one God, does not make a dispute about words, but attributes all honour and religious worship to him alone. This proved, 1st, By the etymology of the term. 2d, By the testimony of God himself, when he declares that he is a jealous God, and will not allow himself to be confounded with any fictitious Deity.
  2. The Papists in opposing this pure doctrine, gain nothing by their distinction of δυλια and λατρια.
  3. Passages of Scripture subversive of the Papistical distinction, and proving that religious worship is due to God alone. Perversions of Divine worship.

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Book 1, Chapter 11, Sections 13-16: Impiety of Attributing a Visible Form to God…

Sections

  • Whether it is expedient to have images in Christian temples.
  • Absurd defence of the worship of images by the second so-called Council of Nice. Sophisms or perversions of Scripture in defence of images in churches.
  • Passages adduced in support of the worship of images.
  • The blasphemous expressions of some ancient idolaters approved by not a few of the more modern, both in word and deed.

Book 1, Chapter 11, Sections 9-12: Impiety of Attributing a Visible Form to God…

Sections

  • Of the worship of images. Its nature. A pretext of idolaters refuted. Pretexts of the heathen. Genius of idolaters.
  • Evasion of the Papists. Their agreement with ancient idolaters.
  • Refutation of another evasion or sophism—viz. the distinction of δυλια and λατρια.
  • Third division of the chapter—viz. the use and abuse of images.

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Book 1, Chapter 11, Sections 5-8: Impiety of Attributing a Visible Form to God…

Sections

  1. Objection,—That images are the books of the unlearned. Objection answered, 1. Scripture declares images to be teachers of vanity and lies.
  2. Answer continued, 2. Ancient Theologians condemn the formation and worship of idols.
  3. Answer continued,—3. The use of images condemned by the luxury and meretricious ornaments given to them in Popish Churches.
  4. The Church must be trained in true piety by another method.
  5. The second division of the chapter. Origin of idols or images. Its rise shortly after the flood. Its continual progress.

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Book 1, Chapter 11, Sections 1-4: Impiety of Attributing a Visible Form to God…

Sections

  1. God is opposed to idols, that all may know he is the only fit witness to himself. He expressly forbids any attempt to represent him by a bodily shape.
  2. Reasons for this prohibition from Moses, Isaiah, and Paul. The complaint of a heathen. It should put the worshipers of idols to shame.
  3. Consideration of an objection taken from various passages in Moses. The Cherubim and Seraphim show that images are not fit to represent divine mysteries. The Cherubim belonged to the tutelage of the Law.
  4. The materials of which idols are made, abundantly refute the fiction of idolaters. Confirmation from Isaiah and others. Absurd precaution of the Greeks.

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Book 1, Chapter 10: In Scripture, the True God Opposed, Exclusively, to all the Gods of the Heathen

Sections

  1. Explanation of the knowledge of God resumed. God as manifested in Scripture, the same as delineated in his works.
  2. The attributes of God as described by Moses, David, and Jeremiah. Explanation of the attributes. Summary. Uses of this knowledge.
  3. Scripture, in directing us to the true God, excludes the gods of the heathen, who, however, in some sense, held the unity of God.

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Book 1, Chapter 9: All the Principles of Piety Subverted by Fanatics, Who Substitute Revelations for Scripture

Sections

  1. The temper and error of the Libertines, who take to themselves the name of spiritual, briefly described. Their refutation. 1. The Apostles and all true Christians have embraced the written Word. This confirmed by a passage in Isaiah; also by the example and words of Paul. 2. The Spirit of Christ seals the doctrine of the written Word on the minds of the godly.
  2. Refutation continued. 3. The impositions of Satan cannot be detected without the aid of the written Word. First Objection. The Answer to it.
  3. Second Objection from the words of Paul as to the letter and spirit. The Answer, with an explanation of Paul’s meaning. How the Spirit and the written Word are indissolubly connected.

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Book 1, Chapter 8: The Credibility of Scripture…

Sections

  1. Secondary helps to establish the credibility of Scripture. I. The arrangement of the sacred volume. II. Its dignity. III. Its truth. IV. Its simplicity. V. Its efficacy.
  2. The majesty conspicuous in the writings of the Prophets.
  3. Special proofs from the Old Testament. I. The antiquity of the Books of Moses.
  4. This antiquity contrasted with the dreams of the Egyptians. II. The majesty of the Books of Moses.
  5. The miracles and prophecies of Moses. A profane objection refuted.
  6. Another profane objection refuted.
  7. The prophecies of Moses as to the sceptre not departing from Judah, and the calling of the Gentiles.
  8. The predictions of other prophets. The destruction of Jerusalem; and the return from the Babylonish captivity. Harmony of the Prophets. The celebrated prophecy of Daniel.
  9. Objection against Moses and the Prophets. Answer to it.
  10. Another objection and answer. Of the wondrous Providence of God in the preservation of the sacred books. The Greek Translation. The carefulness of the Jews.
  11. Special proofs from the New Testament. I. The harmony of the Evangelists, and the sublime simplicity of their writings. II. The majesty of John, Paul, and Peter. III. The calling of the Apostles. IV. The conversion of Paul.
  12. Proofs from Church history. I. Perpetual consent of the Church in receiving and preserving the truth. II. The invincible power of the truth itself. III. Agreement among the godly, not withstanding of their many differences in other respects.
  13. The constancy of the martyrs. Conclusion. Proofs of this description only of use after the certainty of Scripture has been established in the heart by the Holy Spirit.

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Book 1, Chapter 7: The Testimony of the Spirit Necessary to Give Full Authority to Scripture

Sections

  1. The authority of Scripture derived not from men, but from the Spirit of God. Objection, That Scripture depends on the decision of the Church. Refutation, I. The truth of God would thus be subjected to the will of man. II. It is insulting to the Holy Spirit. III. It establishes a tyranny in the Church. IV. It forms a mass of errors. V. It subverts conscience. VI. It exposes our faith to the scoffs of the profane.
  2. Another reply to the objection drawn from the words of the Apostle Paul. Solution of the difficulties started by opponents. A second objection refuted.
  3. A third objection founded on a sentiment of Augustine considered.
  4. Conclusion, That the authority of Scripture is founded on its being spoken by God. This confirmed by the conscience of the godly, and the consent of all men of the least candour. A fourth objection common in the mouths of the profane. Refutation.
  5. Last and necessary conclusion, That the authority of Scripture is sealed on the hearts of believers by the testimony of the Holy Spirit. The certainty of this testimony. Confirmation of it from a passage of Isaiah, and the experience of believers. Also, from another passage of Isaiah.

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